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Definisi kata "jamaica":
rate 1. island country in the West Indies
rate 2. Island country, West Indies. Located south of Cuba, it is 146 mi (235 km) long and 35 mi (56 km) wide, the third largest island in the Caribbean. Area: 4,244 sq mi (10,991 sq km). Population (2002 estimated): 2,630,000. Capital: Kingston. The population consists mostly of descendents of African slaves. Languages: English (official), creole. Religions: Christianity; spiritual sects, Rastafarian movement. Currency: Jamaica dollar. Jamaica has three major regions: the coastal lowlands, which encircle the island and are heavily cultivated; a limestone plateau, which covers half the island; and the interior highlands, with forested mountain ranges, including the Blue Mountains. Agriculture employs one-fourth of the workforce and the major agricultural export is raw sugar, with molasses and rum as by-products. Industry focuses on the production of bauxite and alumina and on the garment industry. Tourism is very important and half of the population is employed in services. Jamaica is a constitutional monarchy with two legislative houses. Its chief of state is the British monarch, represented by the governor-general and its head of government is the prime minister. The island was settled by Arawak Indians ƹ AD 600. It was sighted by Christopher Columbus in 1494; Spain colonized it in the early 16th century but neglected it because it lacked gold reserves. Britain gained control in 1655 and by the end of the 18th century it had become a prized colonial possession due to the volume of sugar produced by slave labourers. Slavery was abolished in the late 1830s and the plantation system collapsed. Jamaica gained full internal self-government in 1959 and became an independent country within the British Commonwealth in 1962. In the late 20th century the government, led by Michael Manley, nationalized many businesses.
rate 3. island nation of the West Indies. It is the third largest island in the Caribbean Sea, after Cuba and Hispaniola, with an area of 4, 244 square miles (10, 991 square km)about half the size of Wales. Jamaica is about 146 miles (235 km) long and varies from 22 to 51 miles (35 to 82 km) wide. It is situated some 100 miles (160 km) west of Haiti, 90 miles (150 km) south of Cuba and 390 miles (630 km) northeast of Cape Gracias a Dios, Nicaragua, the nearest point on the mainland. The national capital is Kingston. Christopher Columbus, who first sighted the island in 1494, called it Santiago, but the original indigenous name of Jamaica or Xaymaca, has persisted. Columbus considered it to be the fairest isle that eyes have beheld and many travelers still regard it as one of the most beautiful islands in the Caribbean. The island's various Spanish, French and English place-names are remnants of its colonial history; the great majority of its people are of African ancestry, the descendants of slaves brought in by European colonists. Jamaica became independent from the United Kingdom in 1962 but remains a member of the Commonwealth. island nation of the West Indies, situated 90 miles (145 km) south of Cuba at a crossroads of major sea trade routes in the middle of the Caribbean Sea. It covers an area of 4, 244 square miles (10, 991 square km) and is the third largest island in the Caribbean, after Cuba and Hispaniola. The capital is Kingston. The island is about 146 miles (235 km) long from east to west and about 35 miles (56 km) wide from north to south. The population in 1992 was estimated at 2, 437,000. Additional reading Geography General introductions to Jamaica's physical features and society include Irving Kaplan et al., Area Handbook for Jamaica (1976); Rex A. Hudson and Daniel J. Seyler, Jamaica, in Islands of the Commonwealth Caribbean: A Regional Study (1989); Mike Morrissey, Our Island, Jamaica (1983, reissued 1989) and Barry Floyd, Jamaica: An Island Microcosm (1979, reissued 1981). R.M. Bent and Enid L. Bent-Golding, A Complete Geography of Jamaica (1966), is an illustrated survey of physical geography. Also of interest are Colin G. Clarke and Alan G. Hodgkiss, Jamaica in Maps: Graphic Perspectives of a Developing Country (1974) and Alan Fincham et al., Jamaica Underground: The Caves, Sinkholes and Underground Rivers of the Island (1997).Mervyn C. Alleyne, Roots of Jamaican Culture (1988), focuses on African influences in Jamaican culture. Mervyn Morris, Is English We Speaking and Other Essays (1999), explores Jamaica's literary and linguistic dimensions. Kevin O'Brien Chang and Wayne Chen, Reggae Routes: The Story of Jamaican Music (1998), traces the development of popular music in the country from the 1940s to the late 20th century. History Clinton V. Black, The History of Jamaica, new ed (1983, reissued 1988), offers a general outline. Jamaica's history is traced in a regional context in James Ferguson, A Traveller's History of the Caribbean (1999). The opening chapters of Francis J. Osborne, History of the Catholic Church in Jamaica (1977, reissued 1988), survey most of the scholarly publications on the Jamaican Arawak. Francisco Morales Padrn, Jamaica espaola (1952), remains the most substantial work on the Spanish period. S.A.G. Taylor, The Western Design: An Account of Cromwell's Expedition to the Caribbean, 2nd ed (1969), discusses the English invasion and early settlement. The plantation as an institution is explored in Michael Craton and Garry Greenland, Searching for the Invisible Man: Slaves and Plantation Life in Jamaica (1978). Mavis C. Campbell, The Maroons of Jamaica, 16551796: A History of Resistance, Collaboration & Betrayal (1988, reissued 1990), focuses on activities and communities in the 18th century.Later colonial periods are covered in Kamau Brathwaite, The Development of Creole Society in Jamaica, 17701820 (1971, reissued 1978); B.W. Higman, Slave Population and Economy in Jamaica, 18071834 (1976, reissued 1995); Douglas Hall, Free Jamaica, 18381865: An Economic History (1959, reissued 1969); Philip D. Curtin, Two Jamaicas (1955, reissued 1975); Mavis Christine Campbell, The Dynamics of Change in a Slave Society (1976) and Gad J. Heuman, Between Black and White: Race, Politics and the Free Coloreds in Jamaica, 17921865 (1981), the last two focusing on the transition from slavery to emancipation. Lord Olivier (Sydney H. Olivier), Jamaica: The Blessed Island (1936, reissued 1971), provides a view of the penultimate stage of British colonial rule.Sociopolitical and economic changes of the 20th century are analyzed in Evelyne Huber Stephens and John D. Stephens, Democratic Socialism in Jamaica: The Political Movement and Social Transformation in Dependent Capitalism (1986) and Anthony J. Payne, Politics in Jamaica, rev. ed (1994). The impacts of debt and economic reform on ordinary Jamaicans are explored in Claremont Kirton and James Ferguson, Jamaica: Debt and Poverty (1992). James A. Ferguson Administration and social conditions Government Under the Jamaica (Constitution) Order in Council of 1962, by which the island achieved independence, Jamaica is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government. Citizens at least 18 years of age are eligible to vote. Jamaica has had universal suffrage since 1944. The prime minister, who is head of government, is appointed by the leading political party from its parliamentary members. The monarch of the United Kingdom, who is titular head of state, follows the prime minister's recommendation in appointing a Jamaican governor-general who has largely ceremonial powers. The principal policy-making body is the cabinet, which consists of the prime minister and at least 11 other ministers. The bicameral parliament consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House has 60 members, who are directly elected. The speaker and deputy speaker are elected by the House from its members. The Senate has 21 members, who are appointed by the governor-general13 in accordance with the advice of the prime minister and eight on the advice of the leader of the opposition party. Senators are appointed for the duration of a single parliamentary term. The president and deputy president of the Senate are elected by its members. General elections must be held at least once every five years and the governing party may choose to hold early elections. The legal system is based on English common law. The highest court in the Jamaican legal system is the Court of Appeals. It hears appeals from the Resident Magistrates' Court, which includes the Family Courts, the Kingston Traffic Court, Juvenile Courts and a division of the Gun Court; the Court of Appeals also handles appeals from the Supreme Court, the nation's highest trial court. The governor-general, on the advice of a Jamaican Privy Council, may grant clemency in cases involving the death penalty; occasionally such cases are referred to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom. According to human rights organizations, the judicial system is overburdened, with long delays before trials and with prison conditions characterized by overcrowding, insufficient food supplies and funding and occasional brutality. The island is divided into 14 parishes, two of which are amalgamated as the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation, generally corresponding to the Kingston metropolitan area. Parish councils, whose members are directly elected, administer the other parishes. The capitals of some parishes have elected mayors. Jamaica is also traditionally divided into three countiesCornwall, Middlesex and Surrey. The two main political parties are the Jamaica Labour Party (JLP) and the People's National Party (PNP). A third party, the National Democratic Movement, was founded in 1995 but did not win any legislative seats in its first contested election (1997). The largest trade unions are the Bustamante Industrial Trade Union (affiliated with the JLP) and the National Workers' Union (affiliated with the PNP). There are also employers' associations. Armed forces and security Violent crime is a major problem on the island, particularly in poor urban areas. Violence and fraud have also marred many national and local elections; however, political violence seemed to diminish in the late 20th century. The Jamaica Constabulary Force is primarily responsible for internal security; it is supplemented by the Island Special Constabulary Force (a unit of police reserves) and, in the event of major disturbances or natural disasters, by the Jamaica Defense Force. Special police units have occasionally been formed in attempts to reduce corruption and to control organized crime. The Jamaican police have been criticized for a high rate of extrajudicial killings, averaging between 100 and 200 annually in the 1980s and '90s. Jamaica has a death penalty, but no hangings have taken place since 1988, owing to protracted appeals to the Privy Council. Jamaica's military services (army, coast guard and air force) enlist only a few thousand personnel and absorb a small percentage of the GDP; recruitment is voluntary. The main concern for the armed forces, besides political and social unrest, is drug trafficking. In 1998 the Jamaican government signed an agreement allowing United States antinarcotics agents to pursue suspected drug smugglers into Jamaican territorial waters.
rate 4. Jamaica Official name: Jamaica. Form of government: constitutional monarchy with two legislative houses (Senate ; House of Representatives). Chief of state: British Monarch represented by Governor-General. Head of government: Prime Minister. Capital: Kingston. Official language: English. Monetary unit: 1 Jamaica dollar (J$) = 100 cents; valuation (Sept. 25, 1998) 1 United States$ = J$35.80; 1 = J$60.95. Demography Population (1998): 2,554,000. Density (1998): persons per sq mi 601.8, persons per sq km 232.4. Urban-rural (1991): urban 50.2%; rural 49.8%. Sex distribution (1995): male 49.74%; female 50.26%. Age breakdown (1995): under 15, 32.3%; 15-29, 28.7%; 30-44, 19.7%; 45-59, 9.8%; 60 and over, 9.5%. Population projection: (2000) 2,589,000; (2010) 2, 814,000. Doubling time: 39 years. Ethnic composition (1982): black 74.7%; mixed black 12.8%; East Indian 1.3%; other 11.2%, of which not stated 9.5%. Religious affiliation (1995): Protestant 39.0%, of which Pentecostal 10.5%, Seventh-day Adventist 6.1%, Baptist 5.3%; Roman Catholic 10.4%; Anglican 3.7%; other (including nonreligious) 46.9%. Major cities (1991): Kingston 103, 771 (metropolitan area 587, 798); Spanish Town 92, 383; Portmore 90, 138; Montego Bay 83, 446; May Pen 46, 785. Vital statistics Birth rate per 1,000 population (1995): 23.2 (world avg. 25.0). Death rate per 1,000 population (1995): 5.0 (world avg. 9.3). Natural increase rate per 1,000 population (1995): 18.2 (world avg. 15.7). Total fertility rate (avg. births per childbearing woman; 1995): 3.0. Marriage rate per 1,000 population (1994): 6.1. Life expectancy at birth (1990-95): male 71.4 years; female 75.8 years. Major causes of death per 100,000 population (1991): diseases of the circulatory system 189.4; malignant neoplasms (cancers) 84.1; endocrine and metabolic disorders 51.3; diseases of the respiratory system 30.1. National economy Budget (1995-96). Revenue J$39, 642, 300,000 (tax revenue 85.6%, of which consumption taxes 32.3%, income taxes 30.6%, stamp duties 3.9%; nontax revenue 14.4%). Expenditures: J$48, 334, 200,000 (current expenditure 62.8%, of which debt interest 22.4%). Public debt (external, outstanding; 1996): United States$3, 183,000,000. Production (metric tons except as noted). Agriculture, forestry, fishing (1996): sugarcane 2, 624,000, yams 240, 371, vegetables 218, 200, citrus fruits 130,000, bananas 130,000, coconuts 115,000, pumpkins, squash and gourds 42,000, plantains 34, 769, sweet potatoes 33,000, cabbages 33,000, carrots 26,000, tomatoes 24,000; livestock (number of live animals) 440,000 goats, 420,000 cattle, 180,000 pigs; roundwood (1995) 354, 700 cu m; fish catch (1995) 13, 617. Mining and quarrying (1996): crude bauxite 3, 924, 800; alumina 3, 199,500; (1995) gypsum 208,000. Manufacturing (value added in constant 1991-95 prices, J$'000,000; 1995): machinery and equipment 593.6; food processing 580.3; petroleum products 351.3; rubber and plastic products 324.1; textiles and clothing 257.0; tobacco and tobacco products 255.2; metal and nonmetallic products 223.6. Construction (1995): residential units completed 7,067; factory space completed 6, 989 sq m. Energy production (consumption): electricity (kW-hr; 1994) 3, 927,000,000 (3, 927,000,000); coal, none (none); crude petroleum (barrels; 1994) none (5, 893,000); petroleum products (metric tons; 1994) 825,000 (2, 748,000); natural gas, none (none). Population economically active (1995): total 1, 150,000; activity rate of total population 46.0% (participation rates: ages 14 and over 58.7%; female 46.3%; unemployed 16.2%). Gross national product (1996): United States$4,066,000,000 (U.S.$1, 600 per capita). Household income and expenditure. Average household size (1991) 4.2; average annual income per household (1988) J$8, 356 (U.S.$1,525); sources of income (1989): wages and salaries 66.1%, self-employment 19.3%, transfers 14.6%; expenditure (1988): food and beverages 55.6%, housing 7.9%, fuel and other household supplies 7.4%, health care 7.0%, transportation 6.4%. Tourism (1995): receipts United States$1,069,000,000; expenditures United States$148,000,000. Foreign trade Imports (1996): United States$2, 906, 679,000 (raw materials 55.7%, of which fuels 15.4%; consumer goods 25.7%, of which food 7.6%; capital goods 18.6%, of which machinery and apparatus 9.5%). Major import sources: United States 60.2%; U.K. 4.3%; Japan 4.1%; Venezuela 3.2%; Mexico 3.1%; France 2.8%. Exports (1996): United States$1, 379, 421,000 (crude materials 49.7%; food 20.2%; beverages and tobacco 3.5%; chemicals 3.3%; machinery and transport equipment 2.3%; manufactured goods 1.4%). Major export destinations: United States 42.4%; U.K. 11.1%; Canada 9.2%; Norway 5.9%; France 4.6%; Germany 4.2%. Transport Transport. Railroads (1991): route length 129 mi; 208 km; passenger-mi 12, 127,000, passenger-km 19,516,000; short ton-mi cargo 1, 700,000, metric ton-km cargo 2, 482,000. Roads (1995): total length 11, 600 mi, 18, 600 km (paved 71%). Vehicles (1994-95): passenger cars 86, 791; trucks and buses 41, 312. Air transport (1996): passenger-mi 1, 204,001,000, passenger-km 1, 937, 655,000; short ton-mi cargo 136,014,000, metric ton-km cargo 198,577,000; airports (1997) with scheduled flights 4. Education and health Educational attainment (1982). Percentage of population age 25 and over having: no formal schooling 3.2%; some primary education 79.8%; some secondary 15.0%; complete secondary and higher 2.0%. Literacy (1995): total population age 15 and over literate 85%; males literate 80.8%; females literate 89.1%. Health (1995): physicians 417 (1 per 6,043 persons); hospital beds (1993) 5,023 (1 per 492 persons); infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births 28.6. Food (1995): daily per capita caloric intake 2, 647 (vegetable products 84%, animal products 16%); 118% of FAO recommended minimum requirement. Military Total active duty personnel (1997): 3, 320 (army 90.4%; coast guard 4.5%; air force 5.1%). Military expenditure as percentage of GNP (1995): 0.8% (world 2.8%); per capita expenditure United States$11. Includes c. 0.7% Rastafarian. City of Kingston is coextensive with Kingston parish. 51% public sector. 1990. Weights of consumer price index components. Import figures are c.i.f. Air Jamaica only. Public health only.
rate 5. Governor General - Kenneth HALL
rate 6. Prime Minister - Bruce GOLDING
rate 7. Dep. Prime Minister - Kenneth BAUGH, Dr.
rate 8. Min. of Agriculture - Christopher TUFTON
rate 9. Min. of Defense - Bruce GOLDING
rate 10. Min. of Education - Andrew HOLNESS
rate 11. Min. of Energy - Clive MULLINGS
rate 12. Min. of Finance & the Public Service - Audley SHAW
rate 13. Min. of Foreign Affairs & Trade - Kenneth BAUGH, Dr.
rate 14. Min. of Health & Environment - Rudyard SPENCER
rate 15. Min. of Industry & Commerce - Karl SAMUDA
rate 16. Min. of Information, Culture, Youth, & Sports - Olivia GRANGE
rate 17. Min. of Justice - Dorothy LIGHTBOURNE
rate 18. Min. of Labor & Social Security - Pearnel CHARLES
rate 19. Min. of Mines & Telecommunications - Derrick SMITH
rate 20. Min. of National Security - Trevor MACMILLAN
rate 21. Min. of Planning & Development - Bruce GOLDING
rate 22. Min. of Tourism - Edmund BARLETT
rate 23. Min. of Transport & Works - Michael HENRY
rate 24. Min. of Water & Housing - Horace CHANG, Dr.
rate 25. Attorney General - Dorothy LIGHTBOURNE
rate 26. Governor, Central Bank - Derick Milton LATIBEAUDIERE
rate 27. Ambassador to the US - Gordon SHIRLEY
rate 28. Permanent Representative to the UN, New York - Stafford NEIL
rate 29. Chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Kenneth O. HALL (since 15 February 2006)
rate 30. Head of government: Prime Minister Bruce GOLDING (since 11 September 2007)
rate 31. Cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
rate 32. Elections: the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Representatives is appointed prime minister by the governor general; the deputy prime minister is recommended by the prime minister
rate 33. JM (Internet)
rate 34. JM (ISO 3166)
rate 35. JAM (ISO 3166)
rate 36. JM (FIPS 10-4)
rate 37. Currency: Jamaican dollar (JMD)
rate 38. GSM Network Organisation Name: Mossel Limited T/A Digicel. Network Name: Digicel. Licensed Service Area: JAMAICA. Technology: GSM 900. Service Start Date: 01/04/2001
rate 39. Area Code Country Code -876
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